Governance: Concepts and Global Perspectives written by Prof. Dr. M. Azizur Rahman published from Academic Press and Publication Library (AAPL) on 27th February 2017.
Angus Deaton, Professor of Economics and International Affairs at Princeton University, has recently been awarded Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2015. He is in receipt of the Nobel Prize for his analysis of consumption, poverty and welfare which is given the new focus on income inequality. Deaton was born in Scotland and holds American and British dual citizenship.
Angus Deaton has made a lot of contributions to the theory and measurement of the three fields. These fields include consumption demand systems, the fluctuation of consumption over time, and the measurement of consumption and poverty in the developing world. He has written a major book in each field to share his deep insights. The aim of these three books and the research is to have served as “door-openers”. Each setting has a clear agenda for which his subsequent research has greatly been applied. Though the three fields are quite different, Deaton’s research on them shares the same general themes which have a long lasting influence on the modern macro-economic research.
When Deaton worked with the World Bank, he played an important role in expanding data in the developing countries. He also brought a good deal of methodological individualism to the field of consumption studies. He worked most of all by using household surveys more than macroeconomic data. He worked extensively from the bottom up. His measuring the welfare sounds very simple but doing it on a right way is not as easy as we think. He consistently tried to apply theory and data closer together through his mastery of measurement and statistical methods. He also focused on the analysis of individual and aggregate outcomes closer together by attending to the issues of aggregation. In fact, a few scholars got themselves involved such a diverse set of methods in their own research. It helped us better understand the determinants of consumption as well as human welfare in particular.
Deaton looks more closely at what the poor households consume to get a better sense of their standard of livings and possible ways for the economic development. He deeply understands economic growth, the benefits of modernity and political economy and those of implications in general.
Deaton has had long a special working relationship with India and South Africa. He has worked on how to measure poverty globally in a consistent manner and ways and means forward. According to Angus Deaton, there are tremendous health problems in India including those of adults and children. Half of the children in India are still malnourished. There also have been a lot of progresses indeed in India. Still then, we have a lot of good things to do in front of us. He has done the detailed research work with household-level data-sets in the poor countries including India and South Africa so that anyone can understand the effects of changes in policies. There are a lot more poor people in rural areas of India. These areas have been affected with India’s subsidy system for the poor which allows them to buy the things of necessities. He also has written on gender discrimination within the family in the developing nations. The absence of state capacity is one of the major causes of poverty and deprivation around the world. Without effective states working with active and involved citizens, there is a little chance for the growth that is needed to abolish the global poverty.
In the book entitled The Great Escape (2013), Deaton expressed uncertainty about the effectiveness of international aid. China and India have upraised tens of millions of people living below the poverty line despite receiving relatively little foreign aid. At the same time, many African countries have remained to mire in poverty in spite of getting substantial foreign aid. In reality, we don’t have these ready-made solutions and money is not going to be the answer to many things. Rather, foreign aid increases corruption in the poor countries’ government system in general. It means that based on the foreign aid, we can’t move ahead fast. Thus, he has been known as one of the main critics of the foreign aid. We have to use our own available properties, resources as well as assets to move fast. Indeed, the foreign aid does not reach to the poor people at all.
Deaton has introduced to us about “Almost Ideal Demand System” which is a standard tool of governments’ use to study how a change has occurred in economic policy. For example: an increase in sales taxes on food will show how it will affect the different social groups and how large the gains or losses will be.
However, the committee of Nobel Prize has noted that Deaton’s work concentrates on around three questions. These are included as follows:
l How do consumers distribute their spending among different goods?
l How much of society’s income is spent, and how much is saved?
l How do we best measure and analyze welfare and poverty?
In order to bring and distribute the social welfare and to alleviate the poverty, we must study and assume the propensity of consumption in the personal level. The study of consumption leads naturally to the study of savings as well as consumption in the future period. We know about Keynes’s famous propensity to the consummation theory which tells us that consumption is a fraction of current income. Milton Friedman’s permanent income hypothesis tells us that consumption is a fraction of estimated lifetime income. Otherwise, Modigliani’s Life Cycle Hypothesis focuses on “borrow when young, save when middle-aged and dissave when old.” Deaton played a significant role in finding out a new dimension of theories.
Actually, Deaton is the economist of the economists. So, the Nobel price of 2015 in Economics for Angus Deaton’s great achievement of consumption, poverty, and welfare is undoubtedly a brilliant selection.
Dr M Azizur Rahman is a Vice-Chancellor, Uttara University
Human trafficking has been described as the cross-border global trading of people. Human trafficking is often regarded as a modern day’s slavery, one of the most unimaginable heinous crimes. This vicious crime robs its victims, including mostly women, children, and their basic human rights. Human trafficking is a complex issue with a diverse range of victims and circumstances. We have seen this terrifying reality from the half-melted death body in the foreign land which reminds us like a heart-breaking picture of 1971. How ill-fated the people have been suffering from this incident. Among the living persons, every bone can be identified. The people of an independent country ought not to be as such a terrific incident. The present circumstances defeat all the slavery systems in the recent past. Ways and means of resolving the problem of human trafficking firstly, we have to know the deepest reason of it. Human trafficking is an acute problem of Bangladesh where Rohingya issue is refueling in it. According to UNHCR, 25,000 migrants have been trafficked to Malaysia by the sea-route in the first few months of 2015. More than 7,000 of them are Bangladeshis and rests of them are mostly Rohingyas. In fact, the Rohingyas have nothing to lose but life. So, they are leaving their homeland for the betterment of life. They are in search of finding a dreamland where a mother can never be raped and a father can never be tortured, where there will be a secured life.
We are concerned about why a few Bangladeshis have been floating around. The causes and effects have logically been found to be interlinked. There are no easy solutions which are readily available. The answer may not be as easy as may be thought. The reason behind it lies in the deepest circumstances.
Bangladesh is now in a transformative phase. The technical change has given it more speed. Everything changes overnight. Lack of adequate employment opportunity drives our people to go to the foreign lands. People living in the relatively less well-to-do countries would like have a decent life to lead. Without accessible adequate legal channels, many simple-minded people are enticed by the fake promises and by taking deceptive journeys. In search of their mission, people are getting stranded in the seas, or trapped in the slave-camps.
Prior to government to government contact (G2G), a huge number of people left the country in quest of livelihood. But the contact has failed to successfully send the people to their destination of Malaysia. Rather it is gradually contracting their scope to go to Malaysia legally by the private recruiting agencies.
Malaysia has been considered as a middle income country which has been in process of getting developed at a relatively fast rate. But it didn’t have enough people to cope with its recent development process. The Malaysian would like to hire foreigners or immigrants from the neighboring countries, including Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, China, and Philippines at a relatively cheap rate.
In short, the development phase of Malaysia is in the process of welcoming more people from the neighboring countries. It is very important to note that all the developing countries mentioned above in Asia have been having a crying need of more people to get employed in their development process. It is not very easy for the willing workers as well as immigrants to easily migrate from their neighboring countries as mentioned above to Malaysia.
For the immigrants to Malaysia, it is relatively cheap for them to process their immigration through an illegal route in terms of time and cost. It is also beneficial to Malaysia to cheaply hire people from the neighboring countries than a legal route. If the Malaysian has to receive such a labor illegally, they never have to follow the labor rule. They can pay the minimum wages. Even they can abuse the labor as like as those of slavery. As laborers are illegal, they have no legal rights to fight against the oppression. Thus, we can say that the illegal transit is beneficial both the immigrants and emigrants point of view. Therefore, it has become very difficult to control the illegal migration from neighboring countries to Malaysia. Rather there is a gambling of immense profit in the host country of Malaysia and in the strong brokers’ net.
The governments including Bangladesh hinder the anti-trafficking process. Among of these less than officials’ involvement in facilitation, lack of a comprehensive monitoring system, lack of understanding among the local officials, disincentives for victims to be identified, week boarder supervision, and strong brokers’ net are the main .
A ‘Special Meeting on Irregular Migration in the Indian Ocean’ in Bangkok was a great initiative to resolve the problem. In fact, Thailand is a transit country for human trafficking among others countries. Many officials and local people get themselves involved in the inhuman works directly. It requires a regional cooperation to resolve the problem. We should pay attention to the multiple and complex concerns how they are addressed in the debate about human trafficking. Responsibility framing is used to identify the actors for creating or maintaining problems, like criminal networks and officials who allow violations to continue or even add to them. Thus, it should be done in a unique regional framework –
Investigation, prosecution and conviction for the trafficking offenders. Investigation, prosecution and conviction of the officials engaged in trafficking related corruption.
Be ensuring that offenders of fraudulent labor recruitment and of forced labor receive stringent criminal penalties.
Provide legal option to the removal of trafficking victims to the countries in which they would face retribution.
Cooperation between States and Parties in order to combat the cross border trafficking
The Constitutions of Bangladesh, Article 34 (1), prohibits forced labor as a basic human right. The government should ensure the constitutional rights and identify the victims of trafficking among the vulnerable population. Full-implementation of the Human Trafficking Act 2012 and National Action Plan on Trafficking need to be ensured. The government should investigate, prosecute and convict the trafficking offenders, including officials and local brokers. By enlarging the scope for the private recruiting agencies, the government can take initiative to reduce bureaucratic barriers and legal costs. The government may also find out new labor market around the world and enhance in procedure to legalize migrant workers for reducing the vulnerability of migrants to human trafficking. However, the government should increase awareness among the people regarding anti-trafficking with the help of mass media as well as the local collaboration throughout the country.
(Prof. M. Azizur Rahman Ph.D is Vice-Chancellor, Uttara University.)
Among the non-Capitalism only Socialism and the Communism will be
discussed in this article. In terms of population almost every country is large.
Many countries have geographically broad population. Different people have
different mind, brain and thinking. Naturally two individuals may be thinking in
a two different ways. We cannot expect the large and broad population will
have rigid or inflexible thinking. Naturally population will be diverse with
flexible thought and thinking. Once again, people do not live with inflexible and
rigid idea. Therefore, it is not very easy to maintain a common goal or set of
laws and order, rules and regulation for sharing effort and resources in the
society of any size under communism. According to the source of Google, large
and diversified societies tend to graviate towards the system of hierarchy which
is far from the ethics of fair distribution of work, income, national income and
resources. This tendency in a large society is very common which can
destabilize a communistic society.
All the human beings are assumed to be rational. They are brought up in the
family under the close care of their parents. Parents do not intend to make a
difference in rearing, bearing and caring between their children. However, in
many conservative societies such as there in Indo-Pak-Bangladesh sub-
continent, the parents are relatively more careful about bringing up their boys
compared to their girls. Normally, the girls get married at the point of crossing
their teenage or they are virtually sold out in the marriage market. In the
Western society such a discrimination between boys and girls are, however, not
very normal. Even the inherited assets and properties are equitable between the
sex in the less than conservative society. From the Islamic point of view, a girl
usually inherits the half of what a boy is blessed. As is normally thought, every
of us wishes to be a big man with a good name and fame in the society. How are
all these make a difference between the human? There are many more factors
than can be precisely briefed in this small space of writing..
People are social being. They must be able to make a difference between good
and bad. However, everybody are not equally good or equally bad. Some are
better than others. Others are worse than some other. All it means that human
being can also behave like animal. It is our social responsibility to aware the
good people and to negatively sanction or punish the bad people. However, we
cannot arbitrarily punish people. Higher offence receives higher punishment as
it requires an expensive defense. Similarly, lower offence is accompanied by
little punishment. All it means, the crimes and punishment vary from zero (0) to
infinite (). This requires us to frame rules and regulation of various degrees for
different kinds of crime. The highest form of rules and regulations are called
law. The commonness of punishment for the common offence as is found as the
precedent is called common law.
Medical tourism internationally is called a global healthcare tourism or simply a
medical travel between countries to obtain health-care services. Medical tourism
takes place to obtain health-care services of some special kinds that includes
joint replacement of knee/hip, cardiac surgery or dental surgery, cosmetic
surgery, nuro-surgery, nephrological treatment, liver transfer etc. in addition to
the other medical services of technical importance.
Bureaucracy is a complicated official system which is both necessary and
annoying. Bureaucracy is the system of governmental management. Without
bureaucracy we cannot run the Government. Bureaucracy is annoying and
confusing because it has a lot of rules, regulation and process. All these can
easily serve as a source of red-tap or red-tapism. Bureaucrats work in the system
of bureaucracy and make use of official rules very strictly. Bureaucrats are not
elected individuals. Only the politicians are elected by the vote of general
people in the national election for a specific period of time. Bureaucrats are not
replaced during their tenureship. Bureaucrats continue to perform for the tenure
of their job unless they are separated for any exceptional reason.
Communism is an internally stable economic system. Those who participate
benefit from the communism system. Those who do not participate are culled or
separated out. It means that there is no “free lunch” in communism as is true in
the case of socialism. This benefit of participation in communism automatically
creates an incentive to participate. Incentive to participate is unlikely to see in
socialism. In socialism, you have the opportunity to benefit yourself regardless
of how much you contribute to the society. In socialism you behave as if you
are a baby. It doesn’t matter if you work or do not work in socialism, you will
receive the benefit of the society. Socialist country will play a role of your
mother. Socially the country is obliged to some extent to spoon-feed you
regardless of your age, ability, willingness to do or not to do anything for the
All the human beings are assumed to be rational. They are brought up in the family
under the close care of their parents. The parent does not intend to make a
difference in rearing, bearing & caring between their children. However, in many
conservative societies such as there in Indo-Pak-Bangladesh subcontinent, the
parents are relatively more careful about bringing up their boys compared to their
girls. Normally, the girls get married at the point of crossing their teenage or they
are virtually sold out in the marriage market. In the Western society such a
discrimination between boys and girls are however not very normal. Even the
inherited assets and properties are equitable between the sex in the less than
conservative society. From the Islamic point of view, a girl usually inherits the half
of what a boy is blessed. As is normally thought, every of us wishes to be a big
man with a good name and fame in the society. How are all these make a
difference between the human? There are many more factors than can be precisely
briefed in this small space of writing. Normally, people differ by born. Somebody
is born in the educated family, some are in the business or political family being
the owner of assets and properties in dignified magnitude. I am not born in the